Charles Darrow – Wikipedia. Monopoly: das berühmte Spiel um den großen Deal. Materialtyp: materialTypeLabel 5. Durchschnitt: (0 Bewertungen). Druck. Wikipedia-Artikel. Monopoly. Was Sie aber vielleicht noch nicht über Monopoly wussten, verrät uns der Eintrag auf Wikipedia. Monopoly wurde von einer Frau erfunden: „Als Erfinderin gilt.
Charles DarrowCharles Darrow – Wikipedia. Was Sie aber vielleicht noch nicht über Monopoly wussten, verrät uns der Eintrag auf Wikipedia. Monopoly wurde von einer Frau erfunden: „Als Erfinderin gilt. Monopoly (englisch für „Monopol“) ist ein bekanntes US-amerikanisches Brettspiel. Ziel des Spiels ist es, ein Grundstücksimperium aufzubauen und alle.
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The purpose of price discrimination is to transfer consumer surplus to the producer. Market power is a company's ability to increase prices without losing all its customers.
Any company that has market power can engage in price discrimination. Perfect competition is the only market form in which price discrimination would be impossible a perfectly competitive company has a perfectly elastic demand curve and has no market power.
There are three forms of price discrimination. First degree price discrimination charges each consumer the maximum price the consumer is willing to pay.
Second degree price discrimination involves quantity discounts. Third degree price discrimination involves grouping consumers according to willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticities of demand and charging each group a different price.
Third degree price discrimination is the most prevalent type. There are three conditions that must be present for a company to engage in successful price discrimination.
First, the company must have market power. A company must have some degree of market power to practice price discrimination. Without market power a company cannot charge more than the market price.
A company wishing to practice price discrimination must be able to prevent middlemen or brokers from acquiring the consumer surplus for themselves. The company accomplishes this by preventing or limiting resale.
Many methods are used to prevent resale. For instance, persons are required to show photographic identification and a boarding pass before boarding an airplane.
Most travelers assume that this practice is strictly a matter of security. However, a primary purpose in requesting photographic identification is to confirm that the ticket purchaser is the person about to board the airplane and not someone who has repurchased the ticket from a discount buyer.
The inability to prevent resale is the largest obstacle to successful price discrimination. For example, universities require that students show identification before entering sporting events.
Governments may make it illegal to resell tickets or products. In Boston, Red Sox baseball tickets can only be resold legally to the team.
The three basic forms of price discrimination are first, second and third degree price discrimination. In first degree price discrimination the company charges the maximum price each customer is willing to pay.
The maximum price a consumer is willing to pay for a unit of the good is the reservation price. Thus for each unit the seller tries to set the price equal to the consumer's reservation price.
Sellers tend to rely on secondary information such as where a person lives postal codes ; for example, catalog retailers can use mail high-priced catalogs to high-income postal codes.
For example, an accountant who has prepared a consumer's tax return has information that can be used to charge customers based on an estimate of their ability to pay.
In second degree price discrimination or quantity discrimination customers are charged different prices based on how much they buy.
There is a single price schedule for all consumers but the prices vary depending on the quantity of the good bought. Companies know that consumer's willingness to buy decreases as more units are purchased [ citation needed ].
The task for the seller is to identify these price points and to reduce the price once one is reached in the hope that a reduced price will trigger additional purchases from the consumer.
For example, sell in unit blocks rather than individual units. In third degree price discrimination or multi-market price discrimination  the seller divides the consumers into different groups according to their willingness to pay as measured by their price elasticity of demand.
Each group of consumers effectively becomes a separate market with its own demand curve and marginal revenue curve.
Airlines charge higher prices to business travelers than to vacation travelers. The reasoning is that the demand curve for a vacation traveler is relatively elastic while the demand curve for a business traveler is relatively inelastic.
Any determinant of price elasticity of demand can be used to segment markets. For example, seniors have a more elastic demand for movies than do young adults because they generally have more free time.
Thus theaters will offer discount tickets to seniors. The monopolist acquires all the consumer surplus and eliminates practically all the deadweight loss because he is willing to sell to anyone who is willing to pay at least the marginal cost.
That is the monopolist behaving like a perfectly competitive company. Successful price discrimination requires that companies separate consumers according to their willingness to buy.
Determining a customer's willingness to buy a good is difficult. Asking consumers directly is fruitless: consumers don't know, and to the extent they do they are reluctant to share that information with marketers.
The two main methods for determining willingness to buy are observation of personal characteristics and consumer actions. As noted information about where a person lives postal codes , how the person dresses, what kind of car he or she drives, occupation, and income and spending patterns can be helpful in classifying.
Monopoly, besides, is a great enemy to good management. According to the standard model, in which a monopolist sets a single price for all consumers, the monopolist will sell a lesser quantity of goods at a higher price than would companies by perfect competition.
Because the monopolist ultimately forgoes transactions with consumers who value the product or service more than its price, monopoly pricing creates a deadweight loss referring to potential gains that went neither to the monopolist nor to consumers.
Deadweight loss is the cost to society because the market isn't in equilibrium, it is inefficient. Given the presence of this deadweight loss, the combined surplus or wealth for the monopolist and consumers is necessarily less than the total surplus obtained by consumers by perfect competition.
Where efficiency is defined by the total gains from trade, the monopoly setting is less efficient than perfect competition.
It is often argued that monopolies tend to become less efficient and less innovative over time, becoming "complacent", because they do not have to be efficient or innovative to compete in the marketplace.
Sometimes this very loss of psychological efficiency can increase a potential competitor's value enough to overcome market entry barriers, or provide incentive for research and investment into new alternatives.
The theory of contestable markets argues that in some circumstances private monopolies are forced to behave as if there were competition because of the risk of losing their monopoly to new entrants.
This is likely to happen when a market's barriers to entry are low. It might also be because of the availability in the longer term of substitutes in other markets.
For example, a canal monopoly, while worth a great deal during the late 18th century United Kingdom, was worth much less during the late 19th century because of the introduction of railways as a substitute.
Contrary to common misconception , monopolists do not try to sell items for the highest possible price, nor do they try to maximize profit per unit, but rather they try to maximize total profit.
A natural monopoly is an organization that experiences increasing returns to scale over the relevant range of output and relatively high fixed costs.
The relevant range of product demand is where the average cost curve is below the demand curve. Often, a natural monopoly is the outcome of an initial rivalry between several competitors.
An early market entrant that takes advantage of the cost structure and can expand rapidly can exclude smaller companies from entering and can drive or buy out other companies.
A natural monopoly suffers from the same inefficiencies as any other monopoly. Left to its own devices, a profit-seeking natural monopoly will produce where marginal revenue equals marginal costs.
Regulation of natural monopolies is problematic. The most frequently used methods dealing with natural monopolies are government regulations and public ownership.
Government regulation generally consists of regulatory commissions charged with the principal duty of setting prices.
To reduce prices and increase output, regulators often use average cost pricing. By average cost pricing, the price and quantity are determined by the intersection of the average cost curve and the demand curve.
Average-cost pricing is not perfect. Regulators must estimate average costs. Companies have a reduced incentive to lower costs.
Regulation of this type has not been limited to natural monopolies. By setting price equal to the intersection of the demand curve and the average total cost curve, the firm's output is allocatively inefficient as the price is less than the marginal cost which is the output quantity for a perfectly competitive and allocatively efficient market.
In , J. Mill was the first individual to describe monopolies with the adjective "natural". He used it interchangeably with "practical".
At the time, Mill gave the following examples of natural or practical monopolies: gas supply, water supply, roads, canals, and railways.
In his Social Economics  , Friedrich von Wieser demonstrated his view of the postal service as a natural monopoly: "In the face of [such] single-unit administration, the principle of competition becomes utterly abortive.
The parallel network of another postal organization, beside the one already functioning, would be economically absurd; enormous amounts of money for plant and management would have to be expended for no purpose whatever.
A government-granted monopoly also called a " de jure monopoly" is a form of coercive monopoly , in which a government grants exclusive privilege to a private individual or company to be the sole provider of a commodity.
Monopoly may be granted explicitly, as when potential competitors are excluded from the market by a specific law , or implicitly, such as when the requirements of an administrative regulation can only be fulfilled by a single market player, or through some other legal or procedural mechanism, such as patents , trademarks , and copyright.
A monopolist should shut down when price is less than average variable cost for every output level  — in other words where the demand curve is entirely below the average variable cost curve.
In an unregulated market, monopolies can potentially be ended by new competition, breakaway businesses, or consumers seeking alternatives. In a regulated market, a government will often either regulate the monopoly, convert it into a publicly owned monopoly environment, or forcibly fragment it see Antitrust law and trust busting.
Public utilities , often being naturally efficient with only one operator and therefore less susceptible to efficient breakup, are often strongly regulated or publicly owned.
These breakups are due to the presence of deadweight loss and inefficiency in a monopolistic market, causing the Government to intervene on behalf of consumers and society in order to incite competition.
The law regulating dominance in the European Union is governed by Article of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union which aims at enhancing the consumer's welfare and also the efficiency of allocation of resources by protecting competition on the downstream market.
Competition law does not make merely having a monopoly illegal, but rather abusing the power a monopoly may confer, for instance through exclusionary practices i.
It may also be noted that it is illegal to try to obtain a monopoly, by practices of buying out the competition, or equal practices.
If one occurs naturally, such as a competitor going out of business, or lack of competition, it is not illegal until such time as the monopoly holder abuses the power.
First it is necessary to determine whether a company is dominant, or whether it behaves "to an appreciable extent independently of its competitors, customers and ultimately of its consumer".
Establishing dominance is a two-stage test. The first thing to consider is market definition which is one of the crucial factors of the test.
As the definition of the market is of a matter of interchangeability, if the goods or services are regarded as interchangeable then they are within the same product market.
It is necessary to define it because some goods can only be supplied within a narrow area due to technical, practical or legal reasons and this may help to indicate which undertakings impose a competitive constraint on the other undertakings in question.
Since some goods are too expensive to transport where it might not be economic to sell them to distant markets in relation to their value, therefore the cost of transporting is a crucial factor here.
Other factors might be legal controls which restricts an undertaking in a Member States from exporting goods or services to another. Los jugadores comienzan por turnos, el jugador que empieza el juego se decide al azar antes de la partida.
Para comprar avenidas, no es necesario dar dos vueltas sino solo una. Si un jugador cae en el espacio Casualidad o Arca Comunal , recoge la carta superior de la baraja correspondiente y sigue las instrucciones escritas en ella estas cartas deben estar boca abajo antes de comenzar la partida.
Una vez sacada la carta se coloca en la parte inferior. El jugador recibe dinero del banco por cada propiedad hipotecada, que debe ser devuelto con intereses para retirar la hipoteca.
Casas y hoteles se puede vender de nuevo al banco a mitad de precio. La propiedad no puede ser entregada a otro jugador. Un jugador se declara en quiebra, y por lo tanto eliminado del juego, si no puede pagar lo que debe.
Si el jugador en bancarrota debe al banco, debe pasar todas sus propiedades al banco. Si la deuda es a otro jugador, se debe dar todas las propiedades al oponente, pero el nuevo propietario tiene que pagar al banco para retirar la hipoteca por cualquier propiedad recibida.
Lippenslaan Knokke F Boulevard Tirou Charleroi F Rue Royale Tournai F Veldstraat Gent F Groenplaats Antwerpen F Naar de gevangenis Allez en prison.
Watermaat- schappij Compagnie des Eaux F Buurtspoorwegen Tramway Vicinaux F Grote Markt Hasselt F Grand Place Mons F Lange Steenstraat Kortrijk F Chemin de fer B.
Copenhague Danemark Vereinigte Schwebebahnen AG. Vereinigte Bergbahnen AG. Monopoly wird mit zwei bis acht Spielern gespielt.
Jeder Spieler erhält ein festgelegtes Startkapital in der Regel 1. DM, später 1. Dann wird mit Spielgeld investiert oder gehandelt.
Es gibt kein negatives Vermögen. Die Spieler kommen im Uhrzeigersinn an die Reihe. Der jeweilige Spieler wickelt folgende Schritte ab:.
Ziel des Spieles ist, nicht bankrott zu gehen, bzw. Ein Spieler, dessen Privatvermögen auf Null gefallen ist, scheidet aus dem Spiel aus.
Die verbleibenden Spieler fahren fort. Die Spielregeln weisen darauf hin, dass die Regeln zum Geld leihen etc.
Wenn ein Spieler im Gefängnis sitzt, darf er seine Figur nicht bewegen, kann aber weiterhin Häuser bauen, Grundstücke kaufen oder verkaufen und Miete kassieren.
Wenn man auf ein solches Kartenfeld gelangt, ist die entsprechende Karte zu ziehen. Von Zahlung eines geringen Geldbetrages z.
Der Inhaber eines Feldes erhält eine Besitzrechtkarte. An ihn müssen die anderen Mitspieler Geld zahlen, wenn sie auf seinem Feld landen.
Im Monopoly existieren 22 Grundstückfelder. Je zwei oder drei solcher Felder haben dieselbe Farbe; diese Farbgruppen repräsentieren Orte mit ähnlichem Mietpreisniveau.
Die Reihenfolge der Felder auf dem Spielplan zeigt einen stetig steigenden Mietwert an. Wenn ein Spieler ein Besitztum eines Mitspielers erreicht, hat er diesem Miete zu entrichten.
Die Miete ist umso höher, je höher der Kaufpreis des Grundstücks ist. Der Kaufpreis für die Häuser steigt mit dem Kaufpreis des Felds.
Durch das Bauen von Häusern erhöht sich die Miete wesentlich. Besitzt man ein Feld mit vier Häusern und zahlt ein weiteres Mal den Kaufpreis eines Hauses, werden die vier Häuser durch ein Hotel ersetzt.
Mehr als die im Monopoly-Spiel enthalten Gebäude 32 Häuser, 12 Hotels können nicht gebaut werden; so ist es etwa möglich, durch den Verzicht auf den Bau von Hotels alle Häuser zu beanspruchen und damit Gegner am Bauen zu hindern.
Die vier Felder in der Mitte der Spielfeldkanten haben in der deutschen und der österreichischen Grundversion die Namen von Bahnhöfen, in der Schweizer Grundversion sind es Bahngesellschaften.
Als Besitzer aller vier solcher Felder kann man besonders viel Geld verdienen, ohne vorher zu investieren.
In neueren Varianten des Spielbretts, speziell bei Städteversionen, sind die Bahnhöfe auch durch Flughäfen, Anlegestellen oder Ähnliches ersetzt.
Der zu zahlende Geldbetrag entspricht einem Vielfachen der Augenzahl, mit der ein Spieler auf einem solchen Feld landet. Mit welchem Faktor die Augenzahl multipliziert wird, hängt davon ab, ob der Besitzer des Feldes auch das andere Versorgungswerk besitzt.In economics and business ethics, a coercive monopoly is a firm that is able to raise prices, and make production decisions, without the risk that competition would arise to draw away their customers. A coercive monopoly is not merely a sole supplier of a particular kind of good or service, but it is a monopoly where there is no opportunity to compete with it through means such as price competition, technological or product innovation, or marketing; entry into the field is closed. As a coercive. Monopoly The Fast-Dealing Property Trading Game The Monopoly logo (–present) Designer(s) Lizzie Magie, Charles Darrow Publisher(s) Hasbro Parker Brothers Waddingtons Winning Moves Publication date ; 85 years ago () Genre(s) Board game Players 2–N N=Number of tokens/pawns in the box/board. Setup time 2–5 minutes Playing time 20– minutes Random chance High (dice rolling. Monopoly Wiki is about the Parker Brothers board game, including: fun facts, history of the game, and other things that you won't find anywhere else concerning Monopoly. Here's how you can help! Just type the title of the page you want to write in the box below, and start editing. Monopoly este un joc originar din Statele Unite, introdus pe piață de frații ess4field.com un joc de strategie, numit și “Jocul de schimburi comerciale rapide cu proprietăți”, numele lui se inspiră din conceptul economic de monopol, adică dominația unei singure entități asupra unei piețe. The Monopoly video games play by the same rules as the standard board game, allowing for single or multiplayer games. When a single player game is chosen, the game in question would generate computer-controlled opponents.